how (cheap, vegan) food analogues are made

Tofu & Soymilk Production: A Craft and Technical Manual


  • proteins
  • mustard (mucilage)
  • soy milk (soy protein)

soy milk

  • mix soy flour with 95% water 3:1
  • stir for 20 min


  • The invention pertains to a cheese analogue, comprising water, a root or tuber starch, native potato protein and a fat component. for 1 kg:

    • 558g water
    • 250g sunflower oil 15-35 wt %
    • 170g waxy root or tuber (potato) starch (avebe Eliane 100)
    • 20g native potato protein (avebe Solanic 300)
    • 2g salt

    • mix starch and protein in water

    • add fat
    • mix until emulsion is obtained
    • Subsequently, the mixture is heated to a temperature of 70-90 °C, preferably 75-85 °C. During heating to this temperature, gelatinization of the starch occurs resulting in increased viscosity. This occurs at a temperature of 50-70 °C . While further increasing the temperature to beyond about 70 °C, the gelatinized starch starts to dissolve so that the viscosity decreases again and the mixture becomes thinner (overcooking). Heating is continued to the intended target temperature, so as to overcook the starch. Heating is preferably slow heating, such as with a heating rate of less than 1 °C/min, preferably less than 0.5 °C/min. Heating can be done indirect (e.g. in a heated vessel) or direct (e.g. by steam injection).
    • During the heating step, mixing is preferably continued, although the mixing may be at lower intensity in order to allow for sufficient heat transfer during gelatinization. The mixing intensity may be increased again after the viscosity has decreased due to overcooking, at sufficiently high temperature.
    • After the heating step, the mixture is a viscous mixture comprising overcooked starch, as well native potato protein and a fat component. This mixture is subsequently cooled, such as to a temperature of below 25 °C, preferably below 15 °C, more preferably below 10 °C, such as for instance 1-8 °C. Cooling results in solidification of the mixture into a solid block.
    • The solid block is subsequently ripened. Ripening is achieved by leaving the cooled block at low temperature, such as a temperature of below 25 °C, preferably below 15 °C, more preferably below 10 °C, such as for instance 1-8 °C, for at least 1 day, preferably at least 2 days, more preferably at least 3 days. This is important, because results in the solid block to further solidify and equilibrate the separate components. This results in sufficient hardness to allow the cheese analogue to be shredded, so that cheese analogue shreds can be more readily obtained by for instance grating. In a preferred embodiment, the viscous mixture comprising overcooked root or tuber starch comprising water, potato protein and a fat component is poured into a suitable mold after the heating step and prior to the cooling step. This has the advantage that the cheese analogue can be formed in any particular shape, such as square or rectangular blocks or cylindrical objects

i First the fat is melted, and its temperature is raised to 701C. Next the stabiliser system is added and the water is blended into the oil and an emulsion is formed with fast stirring. Next the protein is slowly added, and development of texture begins. Then salt, flavour compounds and acid are added. The drop in pH has a strong effect on texture development. This basic type of processing can be developed to be more sophisticated

Basically, a cheese analogue is an oil-in-water emulsion, similar to natural cheese. Fat droplets are incorporated in a protein gel matrix which functions as an emulsifier (Eymery & Pangborn, 1988). A fairly simple formulation for a cheddar cheese type analogue is shown in Table 1. By changing the proportions of caseinates, acid, stabiliser and vegetable oil and by adjusting the processing parameters, it is possible to engineer a wide range of functional properties and produce analogues for shredding or slicing, or to satisfy specific requirements for melting or stringing, for example (Shaw, 1984).

By the addition of suitable enzymes or microorganisms after heat treatment, and allowing ripening at favourable temperature, imitation cheeses of almost any flavour can be prepared (Van Gennip & van der Sommen, 1986).

ingredients (vegan)

  • casein (produced by genetically engineered yeast
  • seasame, sunflower
  • protein: cashew pine almond peanut soybeans (cooked, fermented, ground) pea
  • solidified vegetable oil: coconut palm safflower
  • nutritional yeast (deactivated yeast flakes) tapioca (cassava startch)