observing network traffic

observing rf

spectrum analyser

finding underground infra

ground penetrating radar

GPR, or Ground Penetrating Radar, is essential for locating hollow, non-conductive pipes and conduits. GPR is a wave-based technology similar to aerial radar or a fish-finder SONAR. The GPR software will give the technician a real-time image of what the wave reflects off of. Images are shaped as peaks and hyperbolas. Experience is key for the operating Technician to know what may be a target utility versus an anomaly.

  • http://gen.lib.rus.ec/book/index.php?md5=C1B1EDFE2BDA17EA2365EE9D25693058



rf cable locator

Radio Frequency Pipe and Cable (RF) locators are the bread and butter for any sound utility mark-out. These locators use radio frequencies that are either conducted (direct attachment) or inducted (generated through the ground) onto pipes or cables that lend themselves to carrying a radio wave. A receiver is then employed in picking up the generated signal and following it as it runs beneath the ground. An experienced technician can interpret good traces from ghost traces and establish a good locate. RF locators are useful for conductive materials only.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPvTgqRg8Tc shows how to use inductive cable locater


magnetometer (EML detection)

Electromagnetic (EM) Profiling Locators use electromagnetic waves to profile the conductivity or resistivity of the ground and provide imaging based on those values. These images can often narrow a search area so that an underground tank or structure can be found. Corresponding utilities can then be located with the previously mentioned technologies.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_survey_(archaeology)

measuring hvdc without touching (electric field mill)