Documentation of the last event

Event page: fuck5g

Whiteboard (full size): https://ikiwiki.laglab.org/5g/whiteboard.jpg

whiteboard-small.jpg

Sensibility

5G on the Internet looks blue:

blue5g-small.png

Opposition

Who? Why? Where?

Counter-conspiracy information website by WHO or something vaguely related (?): 5G explained: How 5G Works

EU and Germany push for open source OPENRAN technologies (software/hardware).

Health concerns

Health remedies

  • Pendants review → Aimed at people with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, see above), includes everything from natural sungite pendants to electronic Q-link products.

Netherlands

There were questions to the Dutch parliament and an investigation into 5G EMF. The committee said it is basically safe, but they could not answer some of the subquestions. They refer to a who investigation that should conclude in 2022. There is more research needed on the health effects of 26Ghz frequencies used for 5G (millimeter wave for the Internet of Thing). Source

https://www.kennisplatform.nl/

Research projects on conspiracies

Infodemic

Pro-Huawei cluster in Belgium uncovered by Graphika

Security concerns

Advocacy

Protocol

Versions of the protocols suite are defined in Releases, which have a fixed release schedule: https://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/FeatureListFrameSet.htm. The current release is Rel-16, which completes the system and brings some futuristic features. It is stored in a weird format on the messay 3GPP FTP server:

https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/latest/Rel-16 → Maxigas is trying to compile the information there into a more usable format.

More about specifications and releases here: https://www.3gpp.org/specifications

  • IEEE Spectrum article on the exciting new features in the last protocol specifications released this year: 5G just got weird

The full Rel-16 (latest version) is around 54 million words, so it is a good dataset for statistical analysis, distant reading, datamining, etc.

Here is a wordcloud of the Rel-16 specs:

Rel-16-wordcloud0-small.png

Software related to 5g networks

Open Networking

Open Air Interface

OpenAirInterface (OAI) currently provides a standard-compliant implementation under a GNU GPLv3 license of a subset of Release 10 LTE for terminal (UE), basestation (eNodeB), and core network (EPC - MME, HSS, SGw and PGw) on standard Linux-based computing equipment

srsLTE

Open-source LTE software radio suite developed by Software Radio Systems (SRS). https://www.srslte.com/

https://www.open5gcore.org/

Fraunhofher 5G core implementation aimed at research testbeds.

Free5GC

Chinese initiative for open source 5G protocol implementations

Related

Hardware related to 5G networks

Radar

Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for the Internet of Things

LPWAN is for short sessions, few per hour, low bandwidth, super long battery life:

Energy consumption / Sustainability arguments pro and against:

Uncategorised

Foreground reading:

Background reading:

Governance

Possible ways to shape the future of the 5G usage:

Socio-political AND Governance

2020-04-17 Article19’s input to BEREC on Electronic communications & protecting human rights https://www.article19.org/resources/berec-freedom-of-expression-must-be-guaranteed-in-regulation-of-electronic-communications-markets/ & https://www.article19.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/A19-Contribution-BEREC-consultation-on-WP-2020-Nov19.pdf

“With regard to 5G, we stressed that allocating local licenses for spectrum can allow more verticals-uses, boost innovation and lead to better quality and more choices, and we suggested BEREC to support this trend. In addition, we repeated our call for regulatory authorities within the EU to better follow the work of standard setting organisations, as we are conscious of the impact that technical standards can have on end users’ human rights.”

2019 Article19’s input to BEREC: on the interplay between 5G deployment and regulation.

https://www.article19.org/resources/berec-electronic-communications-markets-have-key-role-in-protecting-human-rights/

https://www.article19.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/berec-5g-cfi-response-article19-ew.pdf

[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilateral_investment_treaty][Bilateral investment treaties]] - given that countries not in the Global North will likely depend in some cases upon foreign direct investment to deploy 5g technologies, it is likely that if there is subsequently resistance to 5g deployment these treaties will come into application.

Technology AND Socio-political consequences

2020-01-19 : The Register: EU’s 5G security rules https://www.theregister.com/2020/01/29/eu_snubs_us_to_permit_huawei_5g_gear/

https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/cybersecurity-5g-networks-eu-toolbox-risk-mitigating-measures

PDF: https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=64468

in 23 languages!!! https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-toolbox-5g-security

https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=64577

2019-12-29 The Nationalist Battle Over 5G https://www.internetgovernance.org/2019/12/29/the-tech-nationalism-workshop-at-igf-berlin/ https://www.intgovforum.org/multilingual/content/igf-2019-ws-41-tech-nationalism-5g-cybersecurity-and-trade#undefined

2020-04-27 “5G in less connected countries” & a webinar by Rhizomatica about African context https://www.apc.org/en/blog/inside-digital-society-investment-priorities-5g-or-not-5g

https://www.oxfordeconomics.com/recent-releases/Economic-Impact-of-Restricting-Competition-in-5G-Network-Equipment

https://resources.oxfordeconomics.com/hubfs/Huawei_5G_2019_report_V10.pdf

24 Jan 2019 : Civil society activism, strategic alignment and international public policy making for spectrum https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17448689.2019.1565181

news

Huawei ousted from heart of EU as Nokia wins Belgian 5G contracts - 9 Oct 2020

subjects to discuss for (a) next time

  • How did the shift from racks of heterogenous servers owned by different parties vs warehouses full of homogenous servers owned by a few big parties happened, and how could this change?
  • take the subject broader, talk about how networks developed, the cloud, and how 5g is about applying techniques / ideas from cloud / internet on mobile networks
  • integrating networks like tetra in 5g network, slicing, integration of iot networks
  • talk about the shift to commodity (as in, standard interfaces, multiple suppliers, integration software diy or thirth party) hardware
  • Software Defined Networking or, centralized routing, and maxing out links
  • Calling computers Cattle vs Pets
  • Can ideas from this world be applied on things that we can build ourselves?
  • Can the same technologies /principles of operation work (how?) in a world where networks / computing facilities are community owned vs a few huge entities
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Operations efficiency
  • Edge Computing
  • Where does the whole china story come from?, it seems that there is multiple free software implementations of a 5g Core network.
  • How much do operators (the ones that own the radio's) operate and develop their own network?

DIY

Do we want to attempt to build ourselves a (mini) 5g infrastructure to understand what it is composed of and to see if this technology can be recuperated? Or would this be a waste of our time?

Is there a sustainable way to build our own networks, that can actually be used by people?

What techniques / concepts (on the operation of computers / networks) can be reappropriated to use in our own projects?

how to DIY a mobile phone network

How to build a mini network (1 base station) to just play around with the stuff, and then be able to connect a standard mobile phone to your own lte / 5g network.

  • DECT guardband is free to use in the netherlands
  • limesdr should prob. work as a Radio, and cost arounc 300$ https://limemicro.com/products/boards/limesdr/
  • It seems that there is free sofware for all parts of the network (look at the Software section of this page), is it complete?

Maps

OOKLA 5G MAP from speedtest.net

Field trips

Field Trip 0 (Lag Field Trip 2.5): Rietveld Academie

Open Street Map showing two mobile antennas (which are in fact one → should be fixed on the map…)

Antenna Register of the Netherlands Showing three 5G NR antennas, 24.5m, 773Mhz (this frequency was auctioned in 2020 for 5G in the Netherlands), 26.2 dBW, one 40 gr, one 190 gr and another 300 gr – so I guess they should be different sizes.

Photos from the rooftop of the Rietveld Academie

Photos from the rooftop of the Rietveld Academie (alternative download link)

This 5G antenna in the official antenna register of the Netherlands (screenshot)

antenna-small.png

Photos of 5G antennas from the Internet (for visual recognition and comparison, i.e. educational use):

052419TB 5Gpushback-small.jpg

5G-Tech-News-Blog-Images-106-small.jpg

6-200 200M  Receiver with Panel Antenna 02-small.jpg

maxresdefault-small.jpg

panel antenna front angle 02-small.jpg

Small cell antenna Eugene-small.jpg

Frequencies

Auction of 5G frequencies between 2020 and 2022 The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy (EZK) will auction the 700MHz, 1400MHZ and 2100MHz frequencies in the spring of 2020. Frequencies in the 3.5GHz and 2—6GHz bands will be allocated over the next few years. The highest bidders are allowed to use the frequencies in question, for example to provide mobile internet. The Netherlands must comply with European agreements on the allocation of frequencies. – https://www.government.nl/topics/ict/plans-for-5g-and-testing-antennas

Antenna design

Mobile phones

Good article on 5G antenna design in mobile phones from SIMULA, a company selling mobile phone radiation simulation software

3 type of antennas:

  • Legacy (2-5G) → More known already, required for backwards compatibility.
  • Frequency range 1 (sub-6Ghz bands for mobile data) → Simulated with SAR evaluation.
    • Health concerns: Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) standards apply.
  • Freuqency range 2 (above 24Ghz millimeter waves for the Internet of Things) → Simulated with power flow evaluation.
    • Usually these are chip-integrated arrays of four elements (high gain and multiple beams).
    • At these frequencies, the cover is an important barrier, so aerospace industry design experience is used (radome design and Frequency Selective Surfaces, aka FSS).
    • Health concerns: Field penetration into the human body is very small (mostly none and the rest is 3mm deep).
      • Therefore, power flow surfaces at a distance from the device are measured.

Considerations:

  • Small and packed space
  • Exact allocations vary geographically
  • MIMO support, where antennas work together to achieve special effects
  • In general there are many interactions and interference with other components

Illustrations:

finding-space.png

antenna-behind-plastic-cover.png

radiation-behind-2mm-cover.png

chip-and-slot-array-antennas.png

SAR-evaluations.png

6G

Quite vague EU project on 6G